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school districts

Education is an inseparable constituent of personality development. In the United States education is to the large extent available owing to the public segment together with the regulation and financial support from federal, state, and local institutions. Public schools are administered by school districts.

As a matter of fact, school districts are autonomous management bodies; however they may be also partially dependent being controlled by local or state governments. Educational programs, employment, financing, and educational process itself are under competence of voted school boards with authority over school districts. Thus, school districts are usually disconnected from other controlling systems and enjoy various degrees of freedom as regards personnel and finances. The main task of school districts is realizing of effective management of the primary and secondary schools.

Organization of school districts

Many school districts bear the features of real local governments and possess authority to control, for instance, taxes and execute other forms of managerial activity. The administrative body is usually nominated by means of popular voting; however, in some cases officials may be appointed by other governmental structures. The administration appoints a qualified public school superintendent who works as the chief executive performing everyday duty and taking decisions regarding strategic realization of educational process.

Free and independent school districts

Free school districts presuppose that the tuition is not charged for attending schools and education is free. The notion independent presupposes various interpretations. In some states independent signifies that the district is detached from county or urban administrative bodies. For example the school districts of some states are independent and not subordinated to municipal or county management. In some cases school districts unite the reserves and feature another type of administrative body with concentration on technical skills in the set of courses. There also exist intermediate school districts at the level of some counties. These intermediate school districts may be focused on two language approaches to teaching or the programs for children with disabilities.

School districts and educational process

The parents choose for their children public or private educational institutions. Private schools cover about 10 – 15 % of students. However, the majority of children go to the public schools because this education is free. In the system of school districts the elementary school includes grades one to five. The middle school presupposes grades six to eight. The high school comprises grades nine to twelve. Children remain at school for about six hours daily. The summer vacations last usually two months.

School districts and learning standards

The programmes are determined by school districts on individual basis. The school districts choose the set of courses and manuals that mirror the learning standards for particular grade levels. Learning standards are the purposes, which school districts must take into account to ensure the satisfactory progress in the educational process. On the one hand, school districts oblige to carry out presupposed norms of educational process; on the other hand, the teachers also play an important part in curriculum creation. School districts categorize the fields of requirements in the frames of the educational programmes. School districts usually publish curriculum information and additional materials on Internet sites.

School districts and mainstreaming

Children with particular needs and problems such as various kinds of disabilities must enjoy the chance to get equal educational opportunities as their healthy mates. This approach presupposes mainstreaming in schools. The mainstream level may be different within various school districts. It is understandable that larger school districts can offer more sufficient and qualitative opportunities for children with special needs in comparison with smaller school districts.

School districts and optional forms of activities

Sports play an important part in everyday activity of schools. Educational sportive programs and games such as soccer and basketball become most important events for students. Moreover, for numerous schools sports can become a useful source of funding in the frames of school districts. Schools, for example, sell sports shirts for games, and school stadiums together with sports centers enjoy great popularity for sporting contests.

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